A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. Most definitions of the term specify that cars are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels with tyres, and to be constructed principally for the transport ofpeople rather than goods.The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world.
Cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. Examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. Both fuels cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008.
There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs of car usage include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle, interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance. The costs to society of car use include: maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, and disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.
The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence, and convenience The societal benefits may include: economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from car production, sales and maintenance, transportation provision, society well-being derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies It was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other newly industrialized countries.
The word "car" is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"), or the Middle English word carre (meaning cart, from Old North French). In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros (a Gallic chariot). The Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which also used the word Karr; the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh (and Gaelic) where 'Car llusg' (a drag cart or sledge) and 'car rhyfel' (war chariot) still surviveIt originally referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon"Motor car" is attested from 1895, and is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant that is also attested from 1895, but that is now considered archaic. It literally means "self-propelled car". The term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, and is attested from 1895.
The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós (αὐτός), meaning "self", and the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable". It entered the English language from French, and was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, and was replaced by "motor car". It remains a chiefly North American usage An abbreviated form, "auto", was formerly a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned. The word is still used in some compound formations in American English, like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic".
The first working steam-powered vehicle was designed—and most likely built—by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. It is not known if Verbiest's model was ever built.
Cugnot's 1771 fardier à vapeur, as preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris
Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769; he created a steam-powered tricycle. He also constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. His inventions were, however, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods, and was of little practical use.
The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car, but often treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses, phaetons, and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865.
In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was probably the world's first internal combustion engine (which they called a Pyréolophore), but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own 'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine. The Niépces' Pyréolophore was fuelled by a mixture of Lycopodium powder (dried spores of the Lycopodium plant), finely crushed coal dust and resin that were mixed with oil, whereas de Rivaz used a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. Neither design was very successful, as was the case with others, such as Samuel Brown, Samuel Morey, and Etienne Lenoir with his hippomobile, who each produced vehicles (usually adapted carriages or carts) powered by internal combustion engines.
A bike-engined car is a small or light weight car that is powered by an engine that was designed for use in a motorcycle. The advantage for car builders is that small car engines in high states of tune are relatively rare whereas large motorcycle engines are frequently designed for high specific outputs. The drawbacks of using bike engines in cars is the lack of reverse gear, lack of low end torque (both characteristics making parking difficult) and that the engines get a short lifespan since they have to pull more weight than they were designed for. Most of these cars use the sequential gearbox from the motorcycle, allowing for faster shifting than a traditional automotive gearbox.
Early examples include the Bond Minicar from 1949 which used a 122 cc Villiers motorcycle engine. More recently, conversions of small cars such as the Mini have started to emerge, since conversion kits have become more available. Bike-engined cars are often based on the Lotus 7-type kit cars, such as the Westfield Megabusa.
The 750 Motor Club in the UK runs a national race series for cars powered by road going motorcycle engines (RGB series) as well as Radical Sportscars, who has its own series and in the United States, the Lites 2 category of IMSA Prototype Lites (formerly IMSA Lites) consists of cars using exclusively the engine from a Kawasaki ZX-10R. One of the most notable series of them all, in a worldwide scale for such is the Formula BMW single seater series for young drivers taking their next step toward Formula One.
Founded in 2003, PakWheels.com has become Pakistan’s #1 automotive portal. Since its inception, PakWheels.com has helped millions of Pakistanis buy & sell automobiles, read automotive reviews and news, check automotive prices and find solutions to all of their automotive needs. Today, PakWheels.com is the first name that comes to mind if anyone is looking for a solution to their automotive needs.
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At PakWheels.com, we believe that it is our duty to provide our visitors with the best online experience and this is what our mission speaks of - to revolutionize and continuously add value to the way people buy and sell vehicles online, in Pakistan. We aim to provide our users with the most comprehensive automotive knowledge with respect to Pakistan and the world alike, and help them develop a sense of belonging in the automotive community. Our motto reflects our vision:
The earliest automobiles recorded were actually steam engines attached to wagons in the late 18th century. The steam engines were heavy and therefore the wagon was slow and hard to control. Better and faster steam cars became common late in the 19th century.
Some cars in the early 20th century were powered by electricity. They were slow and heavy and went out of use until the idea came back later in the century.
The internal combustion engine changed the way automobiles were powered. The engine used either gasoline, diesel, or kerosene to work. When the gas is exploded in a cylinder it pushes the piston down and turns the wheel.
Although many people tried to make a good car that would work well and sell well, people say that Karl Benz invented the modern automobile. He used a four-stroke type of internal combustion engine to power his "Motorwagen". He began to make many cars in a factory and sell them in 1888.
In North America, the first modern car was made by the Duryea Brothers in Springfield, Massachusetts. The Duryea Brothers car also won the first-ever car race in 1895, competing against cars made by Benz. The race was in Chicago, Illinois, and 53 miles long. Duryea then began making the first automobiles for everyday people to use in 1896. That year they made 13 cars by hand in Springfield, Massachusetts.
Research into the manufacture of lightweight automobiles is driven by the need to reduce fuel consumption to preserve dwindling hydrocarbon resources without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability and cost. Materials, design and manufacturing for lightweight vehicles will make it easier for engineers to not only learn about the materials being considered for lightweight automobiles, but also to compare their characteristics and properties.
Part one discusses materials for lightweight automotive structures with chapters on advanced steels for lightweight automotive structures, aluminium alloys, magnesium alloys for lightweight powertrains and automotive structures, thermoplastics and thermoplastic matrix composites and thermoset matrix composites for lightweight automotive structures. Part two reviews manufacturing and design of lightweight automotive structures covering topics such as manufacturing processes for light alloys, joining for lightweight vehicles, recycling and lifecycle issues and crashworthiness design for lightweight vehicles.
With its distinguished editor and renowned team of contributors, Materials, design and manufacturing for lightweight vehicles is a standard reference for practicing engineers involved in the design and material selection for motor vehicle bodies and components as well as material scientists, environmental scientists, policy makers, car companies and automotive component manufacturers.
Provides a comprehensive analysis of the materials being used for the manufacture of lightweight vehicles whilst comparing characteristics and properties
Examines crashworthiness design issues for lightweight vehicles and further emphasises the development of lightweight vehicles without compromising safety considerations and performance
Explores the manufacturing process for light alloys including metal forming processes for automotive applications
I reallh like its driving. Total comfort with awesome mileage especially on long routes. I'm also enjoying 16km per liter in city also with AC. Smooth and relax drive. I always prefer you to buy VXL and don't waste yoir money on VX or VXR. Interior is total black plastic which bexome dusty again and again. That is bad in it.
I owned a civic 2013 PROSMATEC. I was 100/ satisfied by owning the car. It gave me a comfortable n enjoyable drive throughout with zero defect. I m a hardcore Honda fan n the reason is really comfort n pleasure drive. I sold vehicle just to experience civic of next generation which I really liked. Despite 1800 cc fuel averagevwas excellent I.e 11-12 km per litre.The buyer of my civic was really happy after owning my civic. I also want to thank to PAKWHEELS who really made it possible to sell my civic within 48 hrs.
The exterior of the 3rd Generation Nissan Moco features a fairly unique and distinctive design language. The front end houses square side swept headlights, a small narrow trapezium styled grille, small circular fog lights, and a rectangular styled air intake with black accents along the side. The rear end houses top mounted stacked vertical side swept taillights, the rear windscreen wiper, a top mounted brake light and a standard case tailgate. All variants of the Nissan Moco nature identical styling in every aspect.
I have this car since Mar 2016 ,This car has never let me down infact it has impressed me a lot of times through its performance.The engine is the best part of the car and its acceleration and soundless cabin even at high speeds and the fuel economy is excellent.Suspension is excellent.Ac is just amazing and works perfect in intense heat.Interior is very beautiful and is best in its category.the 90 degree rear door opening is very convenient and the rear seat folding option is a big plus the tall design can convert it into cargo vehicle any
Front Is look like a Tiger Exterior is Superbe Fuel economy is very very very exellent Engine is very very power Full 1.5Turbo is 174 hp and 1.8 is 143 hp awesome looking very very comfort seats Resale value is very good Speed picc is very good 1.5L Turbo picc 62mph in 6 secconds